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Year : 2022  |  Volume : 1  |  Issue : 4  |  Page : 128-133

Prescription patterns and antibiotic resistance rates of respiratory tract infections in a Saudi tertiary medical centre

1 Department of Pharmaceutical Care, King Khalid Hospital, Ministry of Health, Najran (formerly John Hopkins Aramco Health Care, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia), Saudi Arabia
2 Department of Pharmacy Practice, Faculty of Pharmacy, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah, Saudi Arabia
3 Department of Biomedical Sciences, Collage of Clinical Pharmacy, King Faisal University, Hafuf, Saudi Arabia
4 College of Medicine, Najran University, Najran, Saudi Arabia
5 Department of Pharmaceutical Care, John Hopkins Aramco Health Care, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence Address:
Dr. Manea Fares Al Munjem
Department of Pharmaceutical Care, King Khalid Hospital, Ministry of Health, Najran
Saudi Arabia
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/sjcp.sjcp_20_22

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Objectives: Respiratory tract infections (RTIs) are a significant cause of hospitalization due to morbidity and mortality. The unwise use of antimicrobial agents in RTI management may contribute to the emergence of bacterial resistance. Therefore, we aimed to assess prescription patterns and antibiotic resistance among hospitalized patients with RTIs. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study included patients with any RTI who were hospitalized between 2016 and 2017. Antibiotics prescribed and changes in antibiotic resistance over time were evaluated. Results: The 405 included patients ranged in age from a few months old to over 65 years old. The most common clinical manifestations were fever (98% of patients) and sore throat (57.5%), followed by cough (46.7%) and dyspnea (27.2%). C-reactive protein was elevated in 43%. The most common diagnoses among all the patients were tonsillitis (43.2%), pharyngitis (36%), and pneumonia (23%). The most commonly isolated organisms were Haemophilus influenza (93.2%), Streptococcus pneumoniae (90.9%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (84.1%), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (84.1%). Amoxicillin/clavulanate was mostly prescribed for upper RTIs, whereas levofloxacin was mostly prescribed for lower RTIs. Amoxicillin/clavulanate was the major antibiotic prescribed for pediatric patients, whereas geriatric patients (≥65 years) were mostly prescribed levofloxacin. No major changes in resistance rates were observed for amoxicillin/clavulanate, levofloxacin, or ciprofloxacin before (in 2015), during the study period (2016–2017), and after the study (2018). Conclusion: Amoxicillin/clavulanate and levofloxacin were the most commonly prescribed antibiotics, but resistance to these antibiotics did not increase over time. However, clinicians should make every attempt to collect cultures from patients with severe RTIs to rule out bacterial involvement.

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